Wednesday, July 31, 2013

The School Khanqah of Sultan al-Zahir Barquq

Besides the Madrasa of Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad is the Madrasa Khanqah of Sultan al-Zahir Barquq to Nahhasin street called al-Mu'izz Islamic Cairo, which can be dated between 1384 and 1386 AD. The architect Shihab al-Din Ahmad ibn Muhammad al Tuluni, which belonged to a family of architects and surveyors court, was in charge of part of the building. The name Jarkas al Khalili, the master of horse Barquq and founder of the famous Khan al Khalili, appears in the registration opening on the front and in the yard.

Its founder was Barquq Sultan, who was of Circassian origin, recruited in the Turkish Bahri Mamluks. The Circassians were subjects of the Tatar Golden Horde and were first imported in Egypt as troops of slaves Qalawun in the thirteenth century. Barquq was released in 1363 AD, he established his rule over the Mamluk government in 1382 when he seized power through a series of intrigues and murders. Since then, he has also started recruiting Circassian Mamluks Caucasus, references in Egyptian history the era following the Circassian Mamluk Sultan with Barquq as its founder. These Mamluks were stationed at the Citadel and where therefore also called the Burji Mamluks or Burgi.

Sultan Barquq sought to legitimize his rule by partnering with the previous dynasty, the Bahri Mamluks, whose legacy to push the Crusaders and Mongols and embracing Sunni Islam was bequeathed. Having established socially by marrying Baghdad Khatun, a widow of Sultan Shaaban, one of the last descendants of Sultan Qalawun, he ordered the construction of a funeral for his family foundation. To emphasize the continuity he wanted, he chose a site near monuments Qalawunid beginning, which define the style during this period with counterweight and contrast massive forms. However, the building Burquq would set the tone for architectural decoration in Cairo between 1400 and 1450.

Monumental facade and portal complex
The foundation established for this complex with a Madrasa teach the four rites, a Friday mosque and a mausoleum, but unlike the Madrasa of Sultan Hasan, it was also a Khanqah for the Sufis. It was a pretty great foundation, which housed up to 125 students in theology and sixty Sufis, with teachers' houses and stables for their horses.

The façade is paneled with recesses surmounted by stalactites. The windows of the upper floors reported arches and wooden grids. It is a style that can be seen in several mosques in the Bahri Mamluk period, including that of al-Aydumur Bahlawan (1346) and Ulmas (1329/1330). Tiraz a stripe along the front.

The dome next to the minaret is not original, but the two structures seem to be in harmony. The original dome was a wooden structure and plaster which collapsed in the nineteenth century. However, the building was often the subject of illustrations, which can reconstruct the dome fairly accurately. The new dome is made of bricks. Although the surface of the dome is clear, there is a stalactite cornice at its base. This is a feature seen mausoleum Sarghitmish the Sultaniyya and the Mausoleum of Yunus al-Dawadar (1382) near the Citadel.

Part of the minaret
An octagonal minaret is recognizable by its large distance rosettes overlapping solid column supported galleries and onion-shaped finial copper. The octagonal minaret but is completely different from most other minarets of the fourteenth century that the tree is pruned. There are intersecting circles where white marble was embedded in the stone. This design may have been inspired by the arcs intersect at the top of the minaret of Qalawun, which was built during the reign of al-Nasir Mohammed. As in the mausoleum Qalawun, the facade of the minaret on the bottom has columns attached to the wall. These columns with their capitals are carved parts of the masonry wall, rather than actual columns and capitals. The tents themselves are rare, palm leaves in high relief, and one of them is decorated with a stylized ram's head.

A trefoil graces the front gate stalactites, and north of the gate is a large dome flanked by a minaret. This large, rectangular, slightly offset entrance is next to the Madrasa al-Nasir. The original bronze door is decorated with geometric inlaid with silver stars. Barquq name, which means "plum" in the Egyptian dialect, is visible on the raised boss of the central star. But on a much smaller scale, the inner vestibule mimics that of Sultan Hassan mosque. It has a stone dome flanked by stalactites. The recess of the portal is decorated with a large rectangular panel with inlaid marble vestibule also recalls that of Sultan Hasan. The mosque retains a number of its original doors and other movable windows.
The prayer niche
A curved entrance leads through a corridor inside crosshair. This archway has a recess on the left which was probably used for water jugs, kept cool by a wooden lattice door is now gone side. There are four iwans overlooking the courtyard were four large arches and pointed. Above the arches is a large inscription in stone. The public hearing is paved with marble mosaic and has large discs of porphyry.

The ablutions fountain in the center of the yard has a wooden dome-shaped bulb on eight marble columns, also similar to the Sultan Hassan mosque. During this period, the Sultan attended the first day of prayer during the opening ceremonies of a traditional mosque. Records show that during the inauguration of this particular mosque, the ablutions fountain was filled with sugar water, and sweets were distributed to the congregation.
The interior of the dome of the ablutions fountain

It is a tripartite sanctuary, such as the Sultan Qalawun Mosque with two pairs of granite columns on each side between the central, large aisle aisles. The sanctuary has a vaulted ceiling, not wood, which is beautifully painted and gilded with a modern restoration. The qibla wall, to the right, is decorated with a marble dado and marble prayer niche. The qibla iwan was once lit with enamelled mosque lamps which are now in the Islamic Museum. Current are replicas.

Entries for the four madrasas are drilled into the cavities. The upper recesses form arches with carved zigzag segments, a device that can also be seen in the Nilometer Roda. However, there, the arches are pointed.

We find a new feature on the doors inside the building. Rather than the entire surface of the door to be confronted with a piece of bronze, but rather a central medallion and bronze four quadrants of medallions in the corners, leaving the bottom of the timber to contrast with bronze. Even bronze sconces are pierced to show the wooden background. This decoration, common in carpets, was originally adopted binders.

The ablutions fountain

Living units for students of all open internal passages, because there is no place on the front or on the court. According to Doris Behrens-Abouseif the waqf deed refers to a madrasa-Khanqah complex and its residential units as a rab ', a term generally used to describe the collective habitat. Instead Tabaqa, an expression of individual life unit in a domestic rab, the act uses bayt, a term used interchangeably with Halva in the waqf document to describe a unit of life in a madrasa or khanqah. Adding a Sufi program to a madrasa reflects the integration of Sufism in urban life in the fifteenth century in Egypt.
On the north side of the prayer hall a door communicates with a vestibule with a stone bench that leads to the mausoleum. The dome over the mausoleum pendants wood and is painted and gilded with the usual decorations.

Tuesday, July 30, 2013

The Pyramids of Sneferu

Just in front of Fayoum in the Nile Valley, south of Cairo, situated alone on the edge of the Western Desert above the lush fields Meidum is a tower-like structure some sixty-five feet high, which was once a pyramid which we believe was built by the 4th Dynasty King, SnefruEgyptologists. Some believe that the early stages of construction were made by Huni, his predecessor, and that Sneferu was only responsible for the completion of the pyramid. However, the name of Huni was not found in the pyramid, and various written documents suggest that the residential city and nearby belonged to the reign of Sneferu. In addition, many of the tombs nearby also belong to the family of Sneferu.In May ways Meidum is the most mysterious of all the great pyramids. When Snefru ascended the throne around 2575 BC, the complex of Djoser at Saqqara was the only major royal pyramid is completed. But Sneferu became the largest manufacturer of the pyramid of Egyptian history by completing not one, but three of them.The first inhabitants of this century called Meidum Pyramid el-Haram al-kaddab, which means "false pyramid" and because of its shape, it has attracted attention since the Middle Ages of travelers. The early fifteenth century, the famous Arab historian Taqi al-Din al-Maqrizi thought it looked like a huge mountain tiered five years. However, it eroded so badly that when Frederik Ludwig Norden visited in the eighteenth century, the pyramid seemed to have only three levels. But it was not time and eroded, but human beings.

When Napoleon's expedition passed through Meidum in 1799, the well known designer, Denon, had just enough time to do some sketches and prepare a brief description of the pyramid. Later, Perring has a much better investigation of it, including measurements in 1837. Thereafter, the expedition of 1843, Lepsius studied in detail. However, its internal structure remains a mystery.

Then, in a major effort to discover and document the Pyramid Texts, Maspero was finally able to open with some mastabas of the area, but archaeological excavations did not begin until ten years. It was Petrie, the founder of modern Egyptology, in collaboration with the Egyptologist Percy Newberry and architect, George Fraser, who led the excavation. They were instructed not to investigate only fully inside the pyramid, but also dig the pyramid temple, roadway approach and a series of private tombs in the area around the pyramid. However, this would not be the last that the pyramid would Petrie.After a long hiatus, Petrie returned to Meidum with Egyptologists, Ernest Mackay and Gerald Wainwright. This time they have conducted excavations at the northeast corner of the pyramid, in the so-called Pyramid of the South and in other places. They tunnel into the pyramid, showing that the nucleus was composed of five layers of accretion with an outer surface constructed carefully dressed limestone blocks. However, as complete as the work of Petrie has always been his research on the pyramid seems to have raised more questions than it answers.In the mid 1920s, Borchardt has made its way to Meidum and after only a few days in the field, has accumulated so much information on the pyramid that fills a whole book which is still very popular today (Die Entstehung der Pyramide Pyramide an der bei der Baugeschichte Mejdum nachgewiesen). He spent considerable time reconstruction on the basis of the ruins, a corridor leading to the pyramid of the southeast, which Petrie had discovered in 1910. Borchardt's opinion, it was used to transport building materials of the pyramid. There was a ramp that had a gradient of ten degrees, which helped build the lower half of the pyramid consists of approximately 88.5 percent of the total volume of masonry. The ancient builders have increased the gradient of the upper half of the ramp, and on these assumptions, everything about the construction strategy seemed to be explained 

Only a few years later, still in the 1920s, an American expedition visited the ruins under the direction of British archaeologist, Alan Rowe, but there was a long period during which the pyramid has received little attention . When, half a century later, another expedition visited the pyramid, this time it was an Egyptian effort led by Ali el-Kholi. They focused on the huge mound of gravel at the bottom of the pyramid.Because of marshland and high water level, the valley temple belonging to the pyramid has not yet been found. Residential town of Snefru Djedsnefru (which means "hard Snefru") was probably located to the east of it.There was an unroofed floor that stretched over two hundred meters and almost certainly linked the wall of the pyramid with a temple in the valley on the edge of the valley. There was actually another "approach" that Petrie excavated, which may have been originally intended for use as causewa. 

The pyramid was surrounded by a single wall, high perimeter consists of limestone blocks. To the east, another huge mastaba was next to the wall, which could have been built for the crown prince, but no owner has been identified. He is known only as Mastaba No. 17 on the cards of the necropolis. However, it is noteworthy that the pyramid stones were used to build, and his coat was made of mud bricks plastered and whitewashed.
A good view of the small mortuary temple, Stela and floor which led to the Valley Temple of the Pyramid of Sneferu at Meidum 

In the wall, the large open court that he had locked a mud floor. In this court, near the southwest corner of the main pyramid, was a second pyramid, but much smaller, probably originally built as a pyramid. This is almost certainly the oldest known example of a pyramid of worship. It has a structure that was accessible from the north by a descendant corridor. In the ruins was discovered a fragment of a limestone stele bearing a representation of the falcon god Horus. On the opposite side of the courtyard are the remains of a mastaba which was probably intended for a royal consort.In the center of the east coast of the pyramid Petrie discovered a funerary temple built in limestone blocks, also in the wall. It is so small that it could have been a memorial chapel to the king rather than an actual mortuary temple. It is unique in many ways, especially because it was the first to be built in the east rather than the north side of the pyramid. It is also the most intact and well preserved temple of the Old Empire. Even the ceiling limestone slabs remain. It is also very simple, and almost certainly related to the overall transformation of the conceptual pyramid complex at E3 stage of construction.

The floor plan of this temple is almost square. It consists of three sections which include an entrance hallway with a double bend in the southeast corner, an open courtyard and a bedroom with two steles. The stelae, which stand near the foot of the pyramid consists of pieces of smooth limestone walls that are rounded at the top, but they bear no inscriptions or images. Between them stands a table of offerings. The lack of decorations seem to indicate that the temple was never really used for any activity of worship. 

However, the temple seems to have had a profound effect on visitors later, that show various graffiti. Dating mainly from the 18th Dynasty, some authors praise the temple. Ankhkheperreseneb, who went in the 41st year of the reign of Thutmose III, said he came "to see the great temple of Horus Sneferu. He saw it, as if the sky was on it and in it the sun rose. "He also exclaims that" Can cool myrrh rain down from the heavens and drip sweet incense on the roof of Temple of Horus Sneferu " However, at the time of his visit, he was already in poor condition for some time during the first and second interim shepherds actually lived.As for the pyramid itself, the explanation of the strange form it takes today and the many mysteries that surround lies in the complicated transition from the 3rd Dynasty step pyramids in the true pyramids, smooth back of the 4th Dynasty . When Wainwright dug inside the pyramid, he showed that the core of the pyramid was built of limestone blocks accretion inclined at an angle of about seventy-five degrees layers. They stood on a square base of thirty-eight meters wide.That the ancient Egyptians used the method of accretion to build the pyramid was not a surprise to Egyptologists, even at the time of Petrie, because it was a fairly common method of construction. What is surprising them was the smooth outer surface of each level, which seems illogical and should have significantly reduced the cohesion of the layers and the structure as a whole. The answer to this particular conundrum came later from Borchardt, who found that the average pyramid was built in three stages, during which its appearance has changed significantly.

The pyramid was originally a seven-step structure built on a rock foundation, but perhaps even before it is completed, an eighth step was added. Each of these first two steps, designated E1 and E2, was intended to be the final structure. However, the pyramid was finally rebuilt in order to transform it into a true pyramid smooth face. However, unlike E1 and E2, E3 designated extension was not based on a strong solid foundation, but three layers of limestone blocks on the sand.Even stranger, while E1 and E2 stage blocks are inclined towards the middle of the pyramid, as in the case of the pyramid complex of Djoser at Saqqara, greatly increasing the strength of the structure, blocks E3 were placed horizontally. This fact was noticed by Borchardt, but Kurt Mendelssohn, who visited Meidum as a tourist, has published a bestseller in 1986 on his theory that the method used to construct the E3 stage resulted in a catastrophic slip that buried the workers who built the pyramids in the rubble that now surrounds the structure. However, the theory of Mendelssohn has not at all been excluded by Egyptologists, because it contradicts the archaeological discoveries that Petrie had already described and remain visible today. The stratification of massive gravel mounds on all four sides of the pyramid shows that the erosion of the structure took place gradually over a long period of time. However, the change in construction methods will make it much easier for working stone thieves. Borchardt made the break, and explained that the rings of coarse masonry bound the different layers of the strongest core and were simply laid bare in these layers were destroyed.In addition, archaeological excavations have also shown that the pyramid was probably destroyed at the end of the New Kingdom, as in the rubble pits up to its side of the 22nd Dynasty have been found at a height of between seven and ten meters above the ground temple. It is assumed that the removal of housing units had already begun during the reign of Ramses II.More recently, the American George Johnson, expressed his opinion on the mound of gravel around the pyramid. In its opinion, the wall concealed the remains of a building boom that took place around the pyramid was built as part of the transformation of the second (E2) in the third step (E3). It highlights the limestone blocks unused that were not part of the masonry that el-Kholi found during its investigation on the mound in the northwestern corner of the pyramid.   

Brands manufacturer of some of the blocks from which the pyramid was built are interesting. Among them are stylized images of two, three and four pyramids that have led some researchers to assume that they show the original shape gradually changed the pyramid. However, we know that the images have determined the placement of blocks on corresponding levels. No less interesting are the inscriptions that include dates and names of working groups. They come from the seventh through the eighteenth heads of cattle from an anonymous officer, but it was probably Sneferu. Entries similar Mason can be found on the pyramid of Sneferu at Dahshur.In addition, the real significance of the alteration of the structure during the E3 step has not yet been fully explained. Step-like shape of the monument was abandoned in favor of a true pyramid shape, and the north-south orientation for an east-west orientation. This seems to reflect a significant change in religious ideas that occurred during the transition from the third to the fourth dynasty. Ricke believed that this is the time that the myth of Osiris was incorporated into the cult of the dead king. The king became identified with Osiris, the lord of hell, and his death has become a legendary event. However, according to another interpretation, the change in the shape and orientation of the tomb has been connected with the decline of the astral religion and the rise of the solar religion. Similarly, the German Egyptologist Dietrich Wildung argued that the pyramid complex in Meidum was a predecessor of the subsequent solar temples of the 5th Dynasty.We might also add that some scholars believe that the final stage of the construction may have taken place several years after the completion of the first two stages, had already moved Sneferu at Dahshur. These researchers seem to believe that it has completed the pyramid as a cenotaph rather than a real tomb.The entrance to the pyramid is on the north-south axis in the north wall, fifteen feet above ground level. This is a unique placement of the entrance of a pyramid, so high above the ground level. From there, a corridor runs down until it reaches a few meters below the base of the pyramid, where it turns into a horizontal passage that leads to the burial chamber. There are niches on the east and west sides of the horizontal section of the corridor, but their purpose is not clear. They may have been used to make it easier to move the blocks used to seal the hallway after the funeral.

The burial chamber itself, which was never finished was reached by a vertical shaft that led to the rise from the southern end of the corridor and out into the northeast corner of the floor of the burial chamber . When Maspero entered the pyramid for the first time, he discovered the ropes and beams there, which makes him think that the tree was what remained of a tunnel built by grave robbers to facilitate their work. He dated the structure to the period when the burial chamber was looted. However, some Egyptologists think it was part of the original structure, used to raise the sarcophagus of the king in the burial chamber, but it was apparently never a sarcophagus in the burial chamber and nobody seems to have been buried there. Also, why the workers were so complicated when the sarcophagus was placed in the burial chamber under construction?In the tradition of step pyramids of the 3rd Dynasty, the burial chamber is aligned with the north-south axis of the pyramid. The so-called false vault built of large blocks of limestone is noted. The idea behind it is very old and is based on the brick architecture of the Early Dynastic Period. Its purpose was to prevent the enormous weight of the pyramid to break the ceiling of the burial chamber. Apparently, manufacturers have chosen this method of ceiling tiles granite they were also familiar.

There are also rooms north of the burial chamber and above the horizontal portion of the corridor that were likely the result of changes in the plan to build the pyramid.

Apparently Snefru abandoned the pyramid complex, but why it has still not been resolved. Subsequently, he founded a new home and a new pyramid of Dahshur necropolis near. Maybe he wanted to be closer to the fortress of white walls (Memphis), or maybe he wanted to start a new, strategically located residential town. Stadelmann, who believes that the pyramid was built for Sneferu Meidum from the start, think complex and surrounding tombs belonged to the queen mother and the princes of the first generation itself. According to him, only a generation later, the family was buried Sneferu at Dahshur.

Monday, July 29, 2013

The Temple of Karnak

 The Temple of Karnak

In ancient Egypt, the power of the god Amun of Thebes gradually increased during the early New Kingdom, and after the short persecution led by Akhenaten program, it peaked. Under the reign of Ramses III, more than two thirds of the property belonging to the temples belonged to Amun, evidenced by the splendid buildings of Karnak. Although badly ruined, no site in Egypt is more impressive than Karnak. It is the largest temple complex ever built by man, and represents the combined achievement of many generations of ancient builders. The Temple of Karnak is actually three main temples, smaller enclosed temples, and several outer temples located about three kilometers north of Luxor, Egypt situated on 100 hectares (247 acres) of land. Karnak is actually the sites modern name. Its ancient name was Ipet-isut, which means "more Select (or sacred) places."This vast complex was built and enlarged over a period of thirteen hundred years. The three main temples of Mut, Montu and Amun are enclosed by enormous brick walls. The open air museum is situated north of the first courtyard in front of the sacred lake. The main complex, the temple of Amun, is situated in the center of the entire complex. The Temple of Montu is north of the temple of Amun, and next door to the inside of the wall is the temple of Ptah, while the Temple of Mut is to the south. There is also a small temple dedicated to Khonsu, and next to it, an even smaller Opet temple. In fact, there are a number of smaller temples and chapels spread about Karnak, such as Osiris Hek-Djet temple (Heqadjet), which is actually inside the wall of the temple of Amun.The sacred lake of Karnak

In TheGreat Temple of Amun, the Second Pylon of Karnak was built byRamesses II. ThePtolemies done some extensive repairs and a new building on the central section. Oddly, they left the columns and the facade of the first tower and left unfinished ramp mud bricks where he was. The reason why the work left unfinished is not clear. 

The hypostyle hall is after crossing the second tower. The room is considered one of the greatest architectural masterpieces in the world. Construction began during the reign of duringRamesses I. He was the king who founded the Nineteenth Dynasty and was king for one year. The work continued underSeti I (1306 - 1290 BC). Seti I also built theTemple Abydos and many other temples. The room was done by the son of Seti I, Ramses II. The effects which are produced inside the room are very different from what they were originally. The huge architraves are not above the capitals dominate. Towards the center of the room, several architraves and windows that mesh stone remain.

This small area can give an idea for builders for lighting effects. A little imagination is required here to appreciate what it should look like. The walls, ceilings and columns are painted with natural colors. The light was originally authorized kept most of the room in shadow. The ceiling of the room was 82 feet high and was supported by 12 papyrus columns. The columns are made of earthenware and placed in two rows of six. Each row is flanked on each side by seven rows of columns, which are 42 feet (12.8 m) high. Each row has 9 columns, but the internal lines have seven columns. The reliefs throughout the hall contain symbolism of Creation. The reliefs of the northern half of the period are of Seti I and are obviously better that those made by his son Ramses II, which are in the southern half. Reliefs of Ramses II are cut much deeper than those of Seti. This gives a much more dramatic light and shadow effect.Plan Karnak - Click on the area you want to ExplorePlan Karnak - Click on the area you want to explore


The outer walls of the Hypostyle Hall are covered with scenes of battle. Again, Seti I is to the north and Ramses II is located to the south. The scenes have long since lost their color that was painted and the outlines of scenes have been blurred by centuries of wind and sun. It is not certain that the battle scenes are based on historical facts or ritual significance. It is believed that when the details of battle are very precise, real events are probably involved. The battles of Seti held in Lebanon, southern Palestine and Syria. The southern walls of Ramesses II hieroglyphic texts which actually record details of the Hittite king and Ramesses II signed a peace treaty in the twenty-first year of King Ramses. This is the first evidence found a formal diplomatic agreement and is certainly historical.Avenue of Sphinxes at Karnak Temple of Amun approach - Photo: Christian


The transverse hall is beyond the rear wall of the hypostyle hall. The wall is mostly ruined. With the transverse hall is a partially reconstructed Third Pylon of Amenhotep (Amenophis) III. The transverse hall has vestiges of the first articles of Karnak complex that are still in existence.Leaving the hypostyle hall in the third pylon you come to a narrow court where there once stood several obelisks. One of the obelisks was erected by Tuthmosis I (1504 - 1492 BC) who was the father of Hatshepsut. This obelisk 70 feet (21.3 m) and weighs about 143 tons. Over the centuries between Tuthmosis I and Ramesses VI, the kings of the time did more than their share of the destruction and dismantling. This obelisk was never touched. The original inscription was left in its place. However, two kings did add their inscription on each side of the original. Beyond this obelisk is the only remaining of Hatshepsut (1473-1458 BC) obelisk. It is 97 feet (29.6m) tall and weighs about 320 tons. Besides the Lateran obelisk in Rome is the largest standing obelisk. That of Rome is 101 feet (30.7m) high. Hatshepsut was a woman who dared to defy the tradition of male kingship. She died of undisclosed after imposing its will on both causes. After his death, his name and memory suffered attempted systematic erasure. The inscription on the obelisk says, "O you people who see this monument in years to come and talk about what I did, be careful what you say," I do not know why this was done. I did it because I wanted to make a gift for my father Amun, and to gild them with electrum. "

Thutmose III (1479-1425 BC) was the successor of Hatshepsut. When he came to power, he built a high wall around her obelisk. This wall hid the lower two thirds but left the upper towering above part. We thought it was an easier and cheaper way to destroy his memory demolished and removed. If Thutmose III had really wanted to destroy the obelisk, he would certainly have torn down and removed. That may be another reason for its construction of the wall. The top of the obelisk was visible for 50 miles (80 km). The pink granite obelisk was extracted in Aswan, which is several hundred miles south of Karnak. The stone was moved several miles down the river and sent to Thebes. The setting of the stone is shown on reliefs as the pharaoh raising with a single rope attached to its upper end. This is probably symbolic, but may have been done this way with several hundred people stick together. South of the standing obelisk is its companion fell. It was also made of a single block of granite, but not anymore.

The sixth tower, which was built by Tuthmosis III, leads to a records room where the king recorded his tributes. Very little remains of this archive beyond two granite pillars. Just beyond these pillars is the Holy of Holies or sanctuary. Initially it was the oldest part of the temple. The present sanctuary was built by the brother of Alexander the Great, Philip Arrhidaeus (323-316 BC) was the king of Macedonia. The current sanctuary was built on the site of the sanctuary built by Tuthmosis III earlier. The present sanctuary contains blocks of Tuthmosis sanctuary and still contain Tuthmosis registrations. The sanctuary is built in two sections.The temples of Karnak are open from 6:30 to 5:30 p.m. in the winter and 6:00 to 6:00 p.m. during the summer. Admission is THE 65 foreigners, THE 35 foreign students. Visit the open air museum, to the left of the second pylon, costs an extra 10 LE. The museum contains a collection of statues which stood in the temple complex. The ticket must be purchased at the main ticket Karnak. Karnak takes at least half a day to walk around its many constituencies and the years to come to know him well. There is also a sound and light show at Karnak. The show begins with a historical introduction covering the birth of the great city of Thebes and erection of the temple of Karnak. The show also narrates the glorious achievements of some great Pharaohs. Spectators listen to a magnificent and poetic description of the artistic treasures and great legacy which surrounds the temple of Karnak.