Monday, July 29, 2013

The Temple of Karnak

 The Temple of Karnak

In ancient Egypt, the power of the god Amun of Thebes gradually increased during the early New Kingdom, and after the short persecution led by Akhenaten program, it peaked. Under the reign of Ramses III, more than two thirds of the property belonging to the temples belonged to Amun, evidenced by the splendid buildings of Karnak. Although badly ruined, no site in Egypt is more impressive than Karnak. It is the largest temple complex ever built by man, and represents the combined achievement of many generations of ancient builders. The Temple of Karnak is actually three main temples, smaller enclosed temples, and several outer temples located about three kilometers north of Luxor, Egypt situated on 100 hectares (247 acres) of land. Karnak is actually the sites modern name. Its ancient name was Ipet-isut, which means "more Select (or sacred) places."This vast complex was built and enlarged over a period of thirteen hundred years. The three main temples of Mut, Montu and Amun are enclosed by enormous brick walls. The open air museum is situated north of the first courtyard in front of the sacred lake. The main complex, the temple of Amun, is situated in the center of the entire complex. The Temple of Montu is north of the temple of Amun, and next door to the inside of the wall is the temple of Ptah, while the Temple of Mut is to the south. There is also a small temple dedicated to Khonsu, and next to it, an even smaller Opet temple. In fact, there are a number of smaller temples and chapels spread about Karnak, such as Osiris Hek-Djet temple (Heqadjet), which is actually inside the wall of the temple of Amun.The sacred lake of Karnak

In TheGreat Temple of Amun, the Second Pylon of Karnak was built byRamesses II. ThePtolemies done some extensive repairs and a new building on the central section. Oddly, they left the columns and the facade of the first tower and left unfinished ramp mud bricks where he was. The reason why the work left unfinished is not clear. 

The hypostyle hall is after crossing the second tower. The room is considered one of the greatest architectural masterpieces in the world. Construction began during the reign of duringRamesses I. He was the king who founded the Nineteenth Dynasty and was king for one year. The work continued underSeti I (1306 - 1290 BC). Seti I also built theTemple Abydos and many other temples. The room was done by the son of Seti I, Ramses II. The effects which are produced inside the room are very different from what they were originally. The huge architraves are not above the capitals dominate. Towards the center of the room, several architraves and windows that mesh stone remain.

This small area can give an idea for builders for lighting effects. A little imagination is required here to appreciate what it should look like. The walls, ceilings and columns are painted with natural colors. The light was originally authorized kept most of the room in shadow. The ceiling of the room was 82 feet high and was supported by 12 papyrus columns. The columns are made of earthenware and placed in two rows of six. Each row is flanked on each side by seven rows of columns, which are 42 feet (12.8 m) high. Each row has 9 columns, but the internal lines have seven columns. The reliefs throughout the hall contain symbolism of Creation. The reliefs of the northern half of the period are of Seti I and are obviously better that those made by his son Ramses II, which are in the southern half. Reliefs of Ramses II are cut much deeper than those of Seti. This gives a much more dramatic light and shadow effect.Plan Karnak - Click on the area you want to ExplorePlan Karnak - Click on the area you want to explore


The outer walls of the Hypostyle Hall are covered with scenes of battle. Again, Seti I is to the north and Ramses II is located to the south. The scenes have long since lost their color that was painted and the outlines of scenes have been blurred by centuries of wind and sun. It is not certain that the battle scenes are based on historical facts or ritual significance. It is believed that when the details of battle are very precise, real events are probably involved. The battles of Seti held in Lebanon, southern Palestine and Syria. The southern walls of Ramesses II hieroglyphic texts which actually record details of the Hittite king and Ramesses II signed a peace treaty in the twenty-first year of King Ramses. This is the first evidence found a formal diplomatic agreement and is certainly historical.Avenue of Sphinxes at Karnak Temple of Amun approach - Photo: Christian


The transverse hall is beyond the rear wall of the hypostyle hall. The wall is mostly ruined. With the transverse hall is a partially reconstructed Third Pylon of Amenhotep (Amenophis) III. The transverse hall has vestiges of the first articles of Karnak complex that are still in existence.Leaving the hypostyle hall in the third pylon you come to a narrow court where there once stood several obelisks. One of the obelisks was erected by Tuthmosis I (1504 - 1492 BC) who was the father of Hatshepsut. This obelisk 70 feet (21.3 m) and weighs about 143 tons. Over the centuries between Tuthmosis I and Ramesses VI, the kings of the time did more than their share of the destruction and dismantling. This obelisk was never touched. The original inscription was left in its place. However, two kings did add their inscription on each side of the original. Beyond this obelisk is the only remaining of Hatshepsut (1473-1458 BC) obelisk. It is 97 feet (29.6m) tall and weighs about 320 tons. Besides the Lateran obelisk in Rome is the largest standing obelisk. That of Rome is 101 feet (30.7m) high. Hatshepsut was a woman who dared to defy the tradition of male kingship. She died of undisclosed after imposing its will on both causes. After his death, his name and memory suffered attempted systematic erasure. The inscription on the obelisk says, "O you people who see this monument in years to come and talk about what I did, be careful what you say," I do not know why this was done. I did it because I wanted to make a gift for my father Amun, and to gild them with electrum. "

Thutmose III (1479-1425 BC) was the successor of Hatshepsut. When he came to power, he built a high wall around her obelisk. This wall hid the lower two thirds but left the upper towering above part. We thought it was an easier and cheaper way to destroy his memory demolished and removed. If Thutmose III had really wanted to destroy the obelisk, he would certainly have torn down and removed. That may be another reason for its construction of the wall. The top of the obelisk was visible for 50 miles (80 km). The pink granite obelisk was extracted in Aswan, which is several hundred miles south of Karnak. The stone was moved several miles down the river and sent to Thebes. The setting of the stone is shown on reliefs as the pharaoh raising with a single rope attached to its upper end. This is probably symbolic, but may have been done this way with several hundred people stick together. South of the standing obelisk is its companion fell. It was also made of a single block of granite, but not anymore.

The sixth tower, which was built by Tuthmosis III, leads to a records room where the king recorded his tributes. Very little remains of this archive beyond two granite pillars. Just beyond these pillars is the Holy of Holies or sanctuary. Initially it was the oldest part of the temple. The present sanctuary was built by the brother of Alexander the Great, Philip Arrhidaeus (323-316 BC) was the king of Macedonia. The current sanctuary was built on the site of the sanctuary built by Tuthmosis III earlier. The present sanctuary contains blocks of Tuthmosis sanctuary and still contain Tuthmosis registrations. The sanctuary is built in two sections.The temples of Karnak are open from 6:30 to 5:30 p.m. in the winter and 6:00 to 6:00 p.m. during the summer. Admission is THE 65 foreigners, THE 35 foreign students. Visit the open air museum, to the left of the second pylon, costs an extra 10 LE. The museum contains a collection of statues which stood in the temple complex. The ticket must be purchased at the main ticket Karnak. Karnak takes at least half a day to walk around its many constituencies and the years to come to know him well. There is also a sound and light show at Karnak. The show begins with a historical introduction covering the birth of the great city of Thebes and erection of the temple of Karnak. The show also narrates the glorious achievements of some great Pharaohs. Spectators listen to a magnificent and poetic description of the artistic treasures and great legacy which surrounds the temple of Karnak.

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