Thursday, August 29, 2013

The Temple of Rameses II

The Temple of Rameses II

At 300m from the temple of Seti I at Abydos, at the western end of the village of Beni Mansour, Ramses II built another temple for himself. This has also been devoted primarily to the worship of Osiris, but it was a more conventional than the temple of his father design. It was built when he was co-leader with Seti I. The walls of the temple of Ramses are reduced, now only about 2m high, but the plan of the structure is still clear to see. Biggest attraction of the temple are brightly painted reliefs which may be the best in any monument built by Ramses II.

Temple of Ramses II

The temple walls are built of limestone, with sandstone pillars. The first pylon and judiciary are now ruined and pink granite portal leads directly into a second courtyard surrounded by a colonnade of pillars Osirid on its north, east and south. No pillars are preserved to their full height and statues of King Osirid committed not everyone has the head and shoulders. The north wall of the courtyard is processions of priests and offering bearers with a bull decorated and gazelles, as well as soldiers, Libyans and Negroes. On the north wall there are some interesting graffiti. Some old amateur artist incised image of a god In-Hert and a painted front door priest him the inscription "Djed-IAH, the justified, WAB-priest of Osiris, Djedi-ankh-f '.At the end of the courtyard on the west side is a raised portico with two chapels dedicated to Seti I and deified ancestors of King chapels on the left and two to nine gods of the Ennead and Rameses II (and Osiris Khenty-Amentiu) on the right. The shrine of the ancestors once contained a table of kings on its north wall, part of which (the "second list of Abydos") is now in the British Museum.On the north wall of the portico carved Ramses new name rings Asian tribes he conquered. A beautiful bridge in polished black granite, 5m high and decorated with scenes and inscriptions, which was restored in the center of the portico leads into the first pillared hall.The first hypostyle was decorated while young Ramses was still co-leader of his father if his cartridges were then modified to contain its own pharaonic titles. Eight rectangular pillars that supported the roof is now gone. The decoration of the hypostyle hall is similar to that of the court and the portico, but a dado bright colors on the lower walls representing the gods of the Nile. These are painted in different colors, red represents the Nile flood, blue represents winter and green in the summer. At the west end of the south wall of the room, went up a narrow staircase to the roof, but there are only 12 remaining steps.

Reliefs in the west chapel

The second hypostyle has eight sandstone pillars with three chapels on each of the north, west and south. The chapels in the north are dedicated to Thoth, Osiris and Min. The chapels in the south are very badly damaged, but we think the central was dedicated to Osiris with a clothing room where everyday clothes of the god were stored. The chapels on the west side of the room were dedicated to Amun-Re, Osiris and Horus eventually. In the last sanctuary on the north wall, there is a colorful relief of "Mistress of Abydos" Hekat goddess, usually depicted as a frog, but in this case showing the human face. Apart from the Lord of the Sacred Lands it the god Anubis also has the head of a man rather than the usual jackal. This is the only known human-headed Anubis example.The central sanctuary on the west side of the hypostyle is the sanctuary "alabaster" of Osiris where you can see a group of restored gray granite statue was brought to another place in the temple and is (probably) Osiris, Isis, Horus, Seti I and Ramses II.In the corner of the west wall to the north and south are thought to be two bedrooms rooms statue also very colorful reliefs. Contain niches decorated and each room has a beautiful southern relief of Ramses offering to Osiris, which is protected by a winged Djed pillar. This is thought to be one of the first representations of a symbol that has become popular in the following dynasties.Only the lower parts of the exterior walls still exist and the north and west walls have a version of the Battle of Kadesh Rameses in the beautiful terrain incised, but not as complete as in some of its monuments later. On the south exterior wall, there is less of a festival calendar that lists the offers provided by royal grant to be presented on public holidays party. Under this Ramses describes his temple and seems to be specific in what remains of the text. It describes a tower of white limestone, granite doors and a sanctuary of pure alabaster which had to be beautiful in its time.Fragmentary king-list of the temple of Ramses II at Abydos. The top row keeps cartridges little known dynasties VII and VIII kings. The middle row shows those of Dynasty XII, XVIII and XIX, omitting some leaders as Hatshepsut, Akhenaten & Tutankhamun. (British Museum EA117)

Landmarks near

Northwest of the Temple of Ramses II in an area known as Kom es-Sultan was a temple in ancient mud-brick dedicated to the god-Khenty Amentiu front of the West ", which later became associated with Osiris as the god of death. It is uncertain whether Khenty-Amentiu was just as Osiris or a different god. Artifacts representing kings from the time of archaic dynasties of the Greco-Roman period have been found here, but little structure survives today. There was also a small temple Wepwawet around.It is likely that the area of ​​Kom es-Sultan was crowded with temples of the Middle Kingdom and the pilgrimage to Abydos was an important part of religious life with many kings adding to the Temple of Osiris. Buildings constituting the settlement area in northern Abydos dating from predynastic were found around Kom es-Sultan. Recent excavators found an old kingdom residential area southeast, which contains a street of mud houses with courtyards and a faience workshop with its kilns.Twelfth Dynasty king Sesostris III added a temple at Abydos collection at the western edge of the desert to the south of the temple of Seti, but nothing remains above the sands. Another cenotaph temple of Sesostris III was further west.Ahmose, the first king of the eighteenth dynasty, built a temple terraces and cenotaph against the mountains southwest of Abydos and also a small shrine to her grandmother Queen Teti-sheri. Long after his death, Ahmose was revered as a demi-god and oracle at Abydos with his wife Ahmose Nefertari.On the southwest side of the walls of the temple of Osiris Ramses II built a limestone "Temple Portal" which was probably the entrance to the area of ​​the ancient cemetery.Recent excavations (1996) Pennsylvania Yale Institute of Fine Arts discovered a small temple in limestone with high quality reliefs which was built in the XVIII dynasty by Tuthmose III. This temple is to the southwest of the enclosure Osiris Kom es-Sultan.A small temple built by Ramses I and now destroyed, was the temple of Ramses II and the temple of Seti.How to get thereSee the page on the temple of Seti I to know how to get to Abydos. The Abydos area encompasses the modern village of Beni Mansour on the north side and El Araba el-Madfuna (now called Abydos Arabet) on the south side. The temple of Seti lies between the two villages with the other monuments of the north and south which extends westward into the desert. The Temple of Ramses II is about half a kilometer north of the temple of Seti.

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